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2013MPA联考《英语》试题及答案(完整版)

发布人: 发布时间:2013-08-11 11:23:23 点击次数:
2013年1月MPA联考英语二试题及答案解析

考试采取“一题多卷”模式,试题顺序不统一,请依据试题进行核对。

  Section I Use of English

  Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Given the advantages of electronic money, you might think that we would move quickly to the cashless society in which all payments are made electronically. ___1___, a true cashless society is probably not around the corner. Indeed, predictions of such a society have been ___2___ for two decades but have not yet come to fruition. For example, Business Week predicted in 1975 that electronic means of payment “would soon revolutionize the very ___3___ of money itself,” only to ___4___ itself several years later. Why has the movement to a cashless society been so ___5___ in coming?

  Although e-money might be more convenient and may be more efficient than a payments system based on paper, several factors work __6___ the disappearance of the paper system. First, it is very ___7___ to set up the computer, card reader, and telecommunications networks necessary to make electronic money the ___8___ form of payment. Second, paper checks have the advantage that they ___9___ receipts, something that many consumers are unwilling to ___10___. Third, the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of "float"-it takes several days ___11___ a check is cashed and funds are ___12___ from the issuer's account, which means that the writer of the check can earn interest on the funds in the meantime. ___13___ electronic payments are immediate, they eliminate the float for the consumer. Fourth, electronic means of payment ___14___ security and privacy concerns. We often hear media reports that an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information ___15___ there.

  Because this is not an ___16___ occurrence, unscrupulous persons might be able to access bank accounts in electronic payments systems and ___17___ funds by moving them from someone else’s accounts into their own. The ___18___ of this type of fraud is no easy task, and a whole new field of computer science has developed to ___19___ security issues. A further concern is that the use of electronic means of payment leaves an electronic ___20___ that contains a large amount of personal data on buying habits. There are worries that government, employers, and marketers might be able to access these data, thereby encroaching on our privacy.

  1. [A] However [B] Moreover [C] Therefore [D] Otherwise

  2. [A] off [B] back [C] over [D] around

  3. [A] power [B] concept [C] history [D] role

  4. [A] reward [B] resist [C] resume [D] reverse

  5. [A] silent [B] sudden [C] slow [D] steady

  6. [A] for [B] against [C]with [D] on

  7. [A] imaginative [B] expensive [C] sensitive [D] productive

  8. [A] similar [B] original [C] temporary [D] dominant

  9. [A] collect [B] provide [C] copy [D] print

  10. [A] give up [B] take over [C] bring back [D] pass down

  11. [A] before [B] after [C] since [D] when

  12. [A] kept [B] borrowed [C] released [D] withdrawn

  13. [A] Unless [B] Until [C] Because [D] Though

  14. [A] hide [B] express [C] raise [D]ease

  15. [A] analyzed [B] shared [C] stored [D] displayed

  16. [A] unsafe [B] unnatural [C] uncommon [D] unclear

  17. [A] steal [B] choose [C] benefit [D] return

  18. [A] consideration [B] prevention [C] manipulation [D] justification

  19. [A] cope with [B] fight against [C] adapt to [D] call for

  20. [A] chunk [B] chip [C] path [D] trail

  答案:

  1-5: ADBDC

  6-10: BBDBA

  11-15: ADCCC

  16-20: CABAD

  【答案详解】

  1. [标准答案] [A]

  [考点分析] 本题考察逻辑关系

  [选项分析] 因为考察逻辑关系,所以需要我们先对填空前后的原文信息做定位分析:填空之后的信息为”a true cashless society is probably not around the corner .”(一个无现金社会不太可能马上出现),而文章之前的信息都是在说我们可能马上就进入一个无现金社会,两者之间出现了明显的转折关系,因此只有however符合题意。B. moreover表递进 C. therefore 表结果 D. Otherwise表对比

  2. [标准答案] [D]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义

  [选项分析] 根据该句的but可知,其前后句子是转折关系。后一句是说这种形式的社会并没有真正有成果出来,所以前一句应该为这样的预测已经进行了二十年。其它选项不符合题意。

 3. [标准答案] [B]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及名词辨析

  [选项分析] 该句意思为,1975年的《商业周刊》预测电子支付手段“将很快彻底改变货币本身的____”。四个选项中,A.为力量 C“历史” D“角色”,语义不正确,且如果选择 role的话,应该是复数roles, 因为是金钱的作用不止一个,故答案选B。

  4. [标准答案] [D]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

  [选项分析] 根据only知道,空格处所填单词词义应与前一句的”revolutionize”(变革)发生同义替换,因此ABCD四个选项中只有D.reverse (颠覆)符合。A. reward 奖赏 B. resist 抵抗 C. resume 重新开始,继续。

  5. [标准答案] [C]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及形容词词义辨析

  [选项分析]根据上文得知,早在1975年就预测了无现金社会可能即将到来,而作者谈到实际上“真正的无现金社会很可能不会马上到来”,因此这种无现金社会只可能缓慢到来,故答案选择C。 A. silent沉寂的,B. sudden突然的,D. steady平稳的。

  6.[标准答案] [B]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及介词词义辨析

  [选项分析] 填空所在段开头although表明对上一段的让步关系,上一段的观点为人们进入无现金时代的速度变缓慢的原因。因此这一段应该是说明尽管电子支付可能比纸币支付方式更方便更高效,然而以下几个方面解释了纸币系统“不会”消失的原因,只有B work against 违背、妨碍,符合题意。A. work for 为…而工作 C. work with 与…共事,对…起作用 D. work on 从事…工作,对…起作用,都不合适。

  7.[标准答案] [B]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及形容词词义辨析

  [选项分析]本填空所在句为对纸币支付“不会”消失原因的解释,即推广电子支付方式不利之处。所以该题选项先排除productive富有成效的。而imaginative,意思是“虚构的、富于想象力的”;sensitive,意思是“敏感的、易受伤害的”均不符合语义,只能选择消极含义的选项expensive。

  8.[标准答案] [D]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及形容词词义辨析

  [选项分析]空格所在句译为...使得电子货币成为____支付方式,将四个选项带入,C, D是比较恰当的,再结合本文章的主旨,应该选择“占主导地位的,支配地位”这层意思的D选项。A. similar 相似的B. original原始的,独创的,都不合适。

 9.[标准答案] [B]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及名词词义辨析

  [选项分析] 纸质支票支付拥有能够____收据的优势,而客户一般都不愿____。收据当然是由银行开具,所以只能选择provide。A. collect 收集收据,C. copy 复印收据,D. print打印收据都和实际生活不符合。

  10.[标准答案] [A]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及固定搭配

  [选项分析]该动词短语的宾语是前文的something, 指代上文的advantage,纸质支票支付能够提供收据这一优势,肯定是消费者不愿放弃的。和优势相搭配的动词短语不能是B. take over接管,也不能是C. bring back拿回来,D. pass down传递、遗传也不符合。A. give up放弃一种优势,符合语境,为正确答案。

  11.[标准答案] A

  [考点分析] 上下文逻辑关系

  [选项分析] 本句是来解释 “float”的。空格前面意为“需要花几天”后半句意为纸支票兑现。上文提到讲纸支票的兑现不像是电子支票,是不会马上完成的,所以在纸支票在兑现前要是需要时间的。A before “在。。。之前”。B after “在。。。之后”。C since “自从”。D when “当。。。的时候”。结合上下文意思,很明显只有A符合语境。

  12. [标准答案] D

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

  [选项分析] 从“and”一词可以看出此题与此11题紧密相连,若能正确理解上一题,此处就很容易选出。意思是在纸支票兑现及钱从帐户取出之前,A kept “保持”。B borrowed “借”。C released “释放,发布”。D withdraw “取钱”。所以结合上下文可以得出只有D项符合语境。

13.[标准答案] C

  [考点分析] 上下文逻辑关系

  [选项分析]前句子含义是电子支票是及时的,后半句含义是用户不能享有“浮动”带来有好处。可以看出整句话是一个因为关系。A .Unless “除非”。 B .Until “直到。。。才”。C.Because “因为”。D .Though “然而”。根据上下文含义,应选C.

  14.[标准答案] C

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

  [选项分析] 此处是一个短句,明显缺少一个谓语动词,通过最后一个单词concerns可以看出本句的含义是电子支付方式引发安全及隐私的问题。四个选项中只有raise和concerns搭配时符合文意。所以选C。

  15. [标准答案] C

  [考点分析] 后置定语

  [选项分析]存储信息是通常有固定的动词store。所以选C。

  16. [标准答案] C

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析

  [选项分析] 上文提出电子支票的坏处,本句话意思是“因为这种事情经常发生”,所以形容意思应为普遍的,但因为本句用的双重否定表肯定,所以选填词汇意思应为不普遍的。结合选项A unsafe “不安全”。B unnatural “不自然的”。C uncommon “不是普遍的” D

  unclear “不清楚的”。所以只有C项符合本句话意思。

  17. [标准答案] A

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词义辨析

  [选项分析] 本句话是讲电子支票的存在的风险,含义是那些不道德的人就可能通过转移帐户从而偷取别人的存款。动词应为贬义,可以排除 [B] [C] [D]选项。故选[A]。

 18. [标准答案] B

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及名词义辨析

  [选项分析] 上文提出电子支票的风险,本句话提出解决办法,但是防止此类诈骗不是容易的事。结合选项A consideration “考虑”。B prevetion “阻止,防止”。C manipulation “操纵” D jusitification“理由,辩护”。结合语境只有B符合。

  19. [标准答案] A

  [考点分析] 动词固定搭配

  [选项分析] 根据上下文应该选一个“应对”安全问题含义的动词词组,所以可以排除C项和D项,B是“对抗,反抗”,A 是“处理应对”,所以A项是最佳答案。

  20. [标准答案] D

  [选项分析] 上下文语义及名词词义辨析

  [考点分析] 本句提出电子支票的另一个风险,电子支票可追踪包括大量有关个人购物习惯的信息。根据文意可以排除A 项和B项,C path “小路,道路,强调路径。D trail “痕迹,踪迹”,符合上下文,所以选D。

Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  In an essay entitled “Making It in America”, the author Adam Davidson relates a joke from cotton about just how much a modern textile mill has been automated: The average mill only two employees today,” a man and a dog. The man is there to feed the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.”

  Davidson’s article is one of a number of pieces that have recently appeared making the point that the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and declining middle-class incomes today is also because of the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution, which are more rapidly than ever replacing labor with machines or foreign worker.

  In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job,could earn an average lifestyle ,But ,today ,average is officially over. Being average just won’t earn you what it used to. It can’t when so many more employers have so much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor, cheap robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius. Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra-their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment.

  Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But there’s been an acceleration. As Davidson notes,” In the 10 years ending in 2009, [U.S.] factories shed workers so fast that they erased almost all the gains of the previous 70 years; roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs-about 6 million in total -disappeared.

  There will always be changed-new jobs, new products, new services. But the one thing we know for sure is that with each advance in globalization and the I.T. revolution, the best jobs will require workers to have more and better education to make themselves above average.

  In a world where average is officially over, there are many things we need to do to support employment, but nothing would be more important than passing some kind of G.I.Bill for the 21st century that ensures that every American has access to poet-high school education.

  21. The joke in Paragraph 1 is used to illustrate_______

  [A] the impact of technological advances

  [B] the alleviation of job pressure

  [C] the shrinkage of textile mills

  [D] the decline of middle-class incomes

  22. According to Paragraph 3, to be a successful employee, one has to______

  [A] work on cheap software

  [B] ask for a moderate salary

  [C] adopt an average lifestyle

  [D] contribute something unique

  23. The quotation in Paragraph 4 explains that ______

  [A] gains of technology have been erased

  [B] job opportunities are disappearing at a high speed

  [C] factories are making much less money than before

  [D] new jobs and services have been offered

  24. According to the author, to reduce unemployment, the most important is_____

  [A] to accelerate the I.T. revolution

  [B] to ensure more education for people

  [C] ro advance economic globalization

  [D] to pass more bills in the 21st century

  25. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the text?

  [A] New Law Takes Effect

  [B] Technology Goes Cheap

  [C] Average Is Over

  [D] Recession Is Bad

【答案】

  【答案详解】

  21.标准答案: A

  考点分析:此题考查考生对文章细节信息的把握能力,解题的关键在于定位和辨别细节信息。

  选项分析:根据题干提示信息,我们定位到文章第一段的最后两句“…a man and a dog. The man is there to feed the dog, and the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.”, 说如自动化的纺织厂,他们只需要两个员工“一个人外加一条狗。人是负责喂狗的,狗是让人不要靠近机器的。”近年来考研阅读常常用故事或是笑话引出文章所要谈论的主题。因此,我们再继续看第二段内容。第二段引出文章话题:全球化和信息科技革命进步是造成失业率居高不下、中产阶级收入下降的主要原因。因此选择答案A。选项B为就业压力的缓解,与本文谈论话题向左;选项C现代纺织厂规模的缩减,望文生义;选项D中产阶级收入的减少,不是文章谈论的重点,文章重在谈论造成中产阶级收入的减少的原因。

  22. 标准答案: D

  考点分析:此题考查考生对文章细节信息的把握能力,解题的关键在于定位和辨别细节信息。

  选项分析:根据题干提示信息,我们定位到文章第三段的倒数第二句“Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra — their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment”,“因此,人人都需要有另外的价值:异于常人的独特价值能够让他们在各自的雇佣市场上脱颖而出。” stand out与题干中的successful同义复现,题干中问我们为了成为成功的雇员,他必须怎么做。答案D中的contribute something unique是对their unique value contribution的同义改写,因此,答案选择D。其他三个选项均与文章内容不相符合。选项A,work on cheap software继续生产廉价的软件;选项B,ask for a moderate salary索要适当的薪水;选项C,adopt an average lifestyle选择一般的生活方式。

  23. 标准答案:B

  考点分析:此题考查考生对文章细节信息的定位和理解能力。此类题目的解题关键在于根据题干信息定位,本题的“Paragraph 4”,“quotation”即为定位信息。

  选项分析:根据第四段引用的Davidson的原话,“2009年之前的十年内,美国工厂裁撤工人速度之快,基本上等于过去70年新增的工人数量;大概每三个工作岗位就有一个岗位消失了,总共约有600万之多。”可知引用这段话的主题为裁员,且速度很快,这符合B项工作机会急速消失,故此项为正确答案。AC两项文章中没有提到,D项和B项互为相反项,结合文章来看工作机会在消失而不是出现了新的工作机会,故D项错误。

  24. 标准答案:B

  考点分析:此题考查考生对文章的细节信息的把握能力,关键在于定位和对文章的理解。

  选项分析:根据题干信息提示“unemployment”,结合自然段定位法,我们不难定位到文章倒数第二段最后一句“Here are the latest unemployment rates from…”下面是美国劳工局对美国25岁以上人群的最新失业率统计:高中学历都没有的失业率为13.8%;有高中学历,但没有大学学历的为8.7%;有大学或大专学历的为7.7%;有学士甚至更高学位的只有4.1%。从这句话可知失业率主要和员工的受教育程度相关。因此如果想要减少失业率,最重要的应该是选项B“确保更多的人受到教育”。ACD项均和文章不符。

  25. 标准答案:C

  考点分析:本题考核的知识点是全文主旨。可以根据文章中的主要内容作答,亦可以根据以上题目的共同焦点作答。

  选项分析:文章第一段通过一个笑话指出现代化社会技术的进步程度,使得劳动力大大减少。其余各段进一步论证了失业率的增加,因此一个追求平庸的时代已经结束了,人们需要提高自身教育水平,才能够保证不被淘汰。最后一段第一句话再次强调说平庸时代已经正式结束了。因此选项C为最恰当的标题。A项“新的法律要实施”仅在最后一段提到一句,不能涵盖文章主旨。B项“科技走向廉价”不符合文意。D项“经济衰退有害”与文章无关。

Text 2

  A century ago, the immigrants from across the Atlantic inclued settlers and sojourners. Along with the many folks looking to make a permanent home in the United States came those who had no intention to stay, and 7millin people arrived while about 2 million departed. About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for exanmle, eventually returned to Italy for good. They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage.

  Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants. We divide nemcomers into two categories: legal or illegal, good or bad. We hail them as Americans in the making, or our broken immigrantion system and the long political paralysis over how to fix it. We don’t need more categories, but we need to change the way we think about categories. We need to look beyond strick definitions of legal and illegal. To start, we can recognize the new birds of passage, those living and thriving in the gray areas. We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges.

  Crop pickers, violinists, construction workers, entrepreneurs, engineers, home health-care aides and physicists are among today’s birds of passage. They are energetic participants in a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas .They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them , They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another.

  With or without permission, they straddle laws, jurisdictions and identities with ease. We need them to imagine the United States as a place where they can be productive for a while without committing themselves to staying forever. We need them to feel that home can be both here and there and that they can belong to two nations honorably.

  Accommodating this new world of people in motion will require new attitudes on both sides of the immigration battle .Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes. Including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system.

  26 “Birds of passage” refers to those who____

  [A] immigrate across the Atlantic.

  [B] leave their home countries for good.

  [C] stay in a foregin temporaily.

  [D] find permanent jobs overseas.

  27 It is implied in paragraph 2 that the current immigration stystem in the US____

  [A] needs new immigrant categories.

  [B] has loosened control over immigrants.

  [C] should be adopted to meet challenges.

  [D] has been fixeed via political means.

  28 According to the author, today’s birds of passage want___

  [A] fiancial incentives.

  [B] a global recognition.

  [C] opportunities to get regular jobs.

  [D] the freedom to stay and leave.

  29 The author suggests that the birds of passage today should be treated __

  [A] as faithful partners.

  [B] with economic favors.

  [C] with legal tolerance.

  [D] as mighty rivals.

  30 which of the best title for the passage?

  [A] come and go: big mistake.

  [B] living and thriving : great risk.

  [C] with or without : great risk.

  [D] legal or illegal: big mistake.

【答案详解】

  26.【答案】C (stay in a foreign temporarily)

  【解析】词汇题。根据题干关键词定位,定位到第一段最后一句。在這句中,They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage.,they 这个代词承前指代,指四分之一的意大利移民。有些人要再美国定居(permanent home),但是一些人只是在美国暂时居住,要回国(had no intention to stay).一定要注意理解这个倒装结构:Along with …. came those who……,那些没有要回国的是我们要强调的。通过这句我们能选择出C选项。这A项只是说一世纪前的横跨大西洋的移民们,没有说birds of passage来自于哪里。B项虽然有for good 但是与原文意思相反。原文是移民们会永远的回到意大利,而不是选项当中的离开自己的祖国。D项文中首段并未提及。

  27.【答案】C (should be adopted to meet challenges)

  【解析】推理题。题干要求在第二段。原文“We don’t need more categories”可以排除A选项。文章“Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants.”我们目前有更加严格的对待移民以及“ We need to look beyond strict definitions of legal and illegal.”我们需要超越这种合法和不合法的严格定义。就知道目前是很严格的。我们还没有选项中的“has loosened control over immigrants.”对移民的放松控制。B 项排除。文章也并没有说这个制度被政治方式所修复。政治确实出现在文章中,但是只是说“the long political paralysis”长期的政治麻痹与原文不符。故排除。“To start …We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges.”首先承认这些短暂移民的存在,然后解决移民的挑战。是C选项的同义替换。

  28.【答案】D (the freedom to stay and leave)

  【解析】细节题。根据关键词定位,可定位到第三段。 “They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them .They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another.”他们喜欢随着机会的来临,来去都自如。他们可以在一地工作,也可以再另外的地方成家。强调的是机会和来去自如。D项是这句的同义替换。A项是对原文的片面理解。“They are energetic participants in a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas”不仅仅是来自金钱的刺激(financial incentives),还有有工作和各种理念。B在文中未提及。文中只是说道“global economy” ,没有提“global recognition”,C项中的regular jobs(一般工作)在文中未提及,也是对文意的曲解。

  29.【答案】C (with legal tolerance)

  【解析】推理题。根据题干,可定位到第五段。题干问到“根据作者,这些短暂移民者应该以何种方式被对待” “Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes. Including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system”意思是 “我们应该超越移民合法性方面的文化之争,重现看待中间地带,充分意识到当今的移民管理体系需要各种途径,从而取得多样化的结果,来解决现今移民体系下用法律手段很难解决的问题”暗含了C项中tolerance也就是对“multiple paths and multiple outcomes”的改写。A、B和D项在文中未提及。

  30.【答案】D (legal or illegal: big mistake)

  【解析】主旨大意题。文章第二段第二句中提到“We divide newcomers into two categories: legal or illegal” “我们把新移民分为2类:合法和不合法移民.” 同时作者认为“We need to look beyond strick definitions of legal and illegal,” “我们不需要合法和不合法移民这样严格的定义”这说明这种分类是错误的。另外,文章最后一段最后一句“Including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system.”“包括在现行移民体系中不容易合法的实现一些事情”也反映了文章的中心。也就是说合法和不合法的分类是错误的。故选D。 A项说短暂移民们的移动是个错误。没有体现文章主旨。B和C项都说是risk(风险)跟文章无关。

Text 3

  Scientists have found that although we are prone to snap overreactions, if we take a moment and think about how we are likely to react, we can reduce or even eliminate the negative effects of our quick, hard-wired responses.

  Snap decisions can be important defense mechanisms; if we are judging whether someone is dangerous, our brains and bodies are hard-wired to react very quickly, within milliseconds. But we need more time to assess other factors. To accurately tell whether someone is sociable, studies show, we need at least a minute, preferably five. It takes a while to judge complex aspects of personality, like neuroticism or open-mindedness.

  But snap decisions in reaction to rapid stimuli aren’t exclusive to the interpersonal realm. Psychologists at the University of Toronto found that viewing a fast-food logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20 percent faster, even though reading has little to do with eating. We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else we’re doing, Subjects exposed to fast-food flashes also tend to think a musical piece lasts too long.

  Yet we can reverse such influences. If we know we will overreact to consumer products or housing options when we see a happy face (one reason good sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling), we can take a moment before buying. If we know female job screeners are more likely to reject attractive female applicants, we can help screeners understand their biases-or hire outside screeners.

  John Gottman, the marriage expert, explains that we quickly “thin slice” information reliably only after we ground such snap reactions in “thick sliced” long-term study. When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay together, he invites them to his island retreat for a muck longer evaluation; two days, not two seconds.

  Our ability to mute our hard-wired reactions by pausing is what differentiates us from animals: doge can think about the future only intermittently or for a few minutes. But historically we have spent about 12 percent of our days contemplating the longer term. Although technology might change the way we react, it hasn’t changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high-speed trend.

  31. The time needed in making decisions may____.

  [A] vary according to the urgency of the situation

  [B] prove the complexity of our brain reaction

  [C] depend on the importance of the assessment

  [D] predetermine the accuracy of our judgment

  32. Our reaction to a fast-food logo shows that snao decisions____.

  [A] can be associative

  [B] are not unconscious

  [C] can be dangerous

  [D] are not impulsive

  33. Toreverse the negative influences of snap decisions,we should____.

  [A] trust our first impression

  [B] do as people usually do

  [C] think before we act

  [D] ask for expert advice

  34. John Gottman says that reliable snap reaction are based on____.

  [A] critical assessment

  [B]‘‘thin sliced ’’study

  [C] sensible explanation

  [D] adequate information

  35. The author’s attitude toward reversing the high-speed trend is____.

  [A] tolerant

  [B] uncertain

  [C] optimistic

  [D] doubtful

31.【答案】 [D] predetermine the accuracy of our judgment

  【解析】细节题。题干问的是“作决定过程中所需的时间或许可以_____”。文章第一段提到“如果我们在做出反应之前花点儿时间来思考,那么将会减少甚至消除我们快速反应所带来的负面影响”,也就是说我们做决定所花的时间决定了我们判断的准确性。此外,此选项中的“accuracy” 为“accurately ”的同词异形,故此项为正确答案。选项A表达“依形势紧急性而定”错在无中生有﹔选项B“証明大脑反映的复杂性”,也是无中生有﹔选项C “取决于评估的重要性”,也与原文不符合,故排除。

  32.【答案】[A] can be associative

  【解析】细节题。题干问的是“我们对于快餐商标的反应速度表明决定是_____样的”,由题干的关键词“fast-food logo”我们可以定位到第三段。第三段开头说,让人做出仓促决定的刺激因素不仅限于人际关系范围内。紧接着一句说人们对快餐商标的反应速度比一般阅读速度快。下一句阐述了原因:因为人们无意识地(unconsciously)将“快餐”与“速度”和“心急”联系在一起,并将这些冲动付诸行动。A说决定是有联系性的正确,因为人们将“快餐”与“速度”,“心急”联系在了一起。B说决定是无意识的,与原文意思相反;C说决定是危险的,原文未提及;D说决定是不冲动的,与原文意思相悖排除。

  33.【答案】[C] think before we act

  【解析】细节题。先看题干说“为了逆转仓促决定所带来的影响,我们应该_____”。 根据题干定位到第四段。第四段通过两个例子说明我们应该怎样克服负面影响,第一个例子表示“如果我们会对消费产品或者房产选择做出“过度反应”,我们可以在购买之前先思考一会儿”,由此可说明我们应该在行动之前先思考来消除负面影响,因此选择答案C。其他选项均不符合题意。

  34.【答案】[D] adequate information

  【解析】细节题。题干问的是“John Gottman认为可靠的快速反映是基于_____的。”由题干John Gottman 定位到全文倒数第二段。其中第一句:John Gottman, ...explains that we quickly “thin slice”information reliably only after we ground such snap reactions in ”thick sliced”long-term study. 婚姻专家约翰.古德曼解释说,我们快速反应的信息的可靠性是建立在这样的快速反应的行为是以长期的研究为基础而做出的快速反应行为。其中ground是题干中base on 的同意置换,long-term study长期的研究与D选项adequate information相互呼应。由此可判断出[D] adequate information(足够的信息)是本题正解。35.【答案】[C] optimistic

  35. 【解析】态度题。根据35题题干reversing the high-speed trend是全文的最后一句,所以解此题可先定位到全文的最后一段。最后一段最后两句:Although technology might change the way we react, it hasn’t changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high-speed trend.译为 “尽管技术可能改变我们反应的方式,但是它并没有改变我们的本性。我们仍然有能力去克服诱惑并扭转这种高速度的趋势。” 由此我们可以看出作者的态度是非常确定的,因此[C] optimistic(乐观的)是正解。

Text4

  Europe is not a gender-equality heaven.In particular, the corporate workplace will never be completely family—friendly until women are part of senior management decisions,and Europe,s top corporate-governance positions remain overwhelmingly male .indeed,women hold only 14 percent of positions on Europe corporate boards.

  The Europe Union is now considering legislation to compel corporate boards to maintain a certain proportion of women-up to 60 percent.This proposed mandate was born of frustration. Last year, Europe Commission Vice President Viviane Reding issued a call to voluntary action. Reding invited corporations to sign up for gender balance goal of 40 percent female board membership. But her appeal was considered a failure: only 24 companies took it up.

  Do we need quotas to ensure that women can continue to climb the corporate Ladder fairy as they balance work and family?

  “Personally, I don’t like quotas,” Reding said recently. “But i like what the quotas do.” Quotas get action: they “open the way to equality and they break through the glass ceiling,”according to Reding, a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions.

  I understand Reding’s reluctance-and her frustration. I don’t like quotas either; they run counter to my belief in meritocracy, government by the capable. But, when one considers the obstacles to achieving the meritocratic ideal, it does look as if a fairer world must be temporarily ordered.

  After all, four decades of evidence has now shown that corporations in Europe as the US are evading the meritocratic hiring and promotion of women to top position— no matter how much “soft pressure ” is put upon them. When women do break through to the summit of corporate power--as, for example, Sheryl Sandberg recently did at Facebook—they attract massive attention precisely because they remain the exception to the rule.

  If appropriate pubic policies were in place to help all women---whether CEOs or their children’s caregivers--and all families, Sandberg would be no more newsworthy than any other highly capable person living in a more just society.

  36. In the European corporate workplace, generally_____.

  [A] women take the lead

  [B] men have the final say

  [C] corporate governance is overwhelmed

  [D] senior management is family-friendly

  37. The European Union’s intended legislation is ________.

  [A] a reflection of gender balance

  [B] a reluctant choice

  [C] a response to Reding’s call

  [D] a voluntary action

  38. According ti Reding, quotas may help women ______.

  [A] get top business positions

  [B] see through the glass ceiling

  [C] balance work and family

  [D] anticipate legal results

  39. The author’s attitude toward Reding’s appeal is one of _________.

  [A] skepticism

  [B] objectiveness

  [C] indifference

  [D] approval

  40. Women entering top management become headlines due to the lack of ______.

  [A] more social justice

  [B] massive media attention

  [C] suitable public policies

  [D] greater “soft pressure”

36.【答案】B men have the final say

  【解析】根据题干中的关键词European corporate workplace,定位到文章的第一段.第一句话就明确指出欧洲不是一个性别平等的天堂。接着说,尤其是工作场所从来不是彻底友好的,公司的高层仍旧是清一色的男性。选项B,男性有最后的话语权,是这句话的同义替换,所以正确。

  37.【答案】A a reflection of gender balance

  【解析】根据题干的关键词The European Union,定位到第二段首句,intended legislation是对is now considering legislation的同义改写。该句意思为“欧洲国家现在考虑立法来迫使公司董事让妇女的比例达到60%”,因此立法是为了保持性别的平衡。B选项的reluctant是对第5段的Reding’s reluctance出的干扰项,并不是说European Union的立法。C选项a response to Reding’s call不正确,Reding号召的是voluntary action, D也是干扰项,而真正的立法缘由是对gender balance的反思,所以A项正确,也是文章中心的反映。

  38.【答案】A get top business positions

  【解析】定位至第4段,Reding说自己不喜欢quotas,后面出现了but,他真正的观点在but之后,他说他喜欢quotas所做的事情,即get action,后面的冒号是对get action的解释。核心的答案在a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions。a result是前面内容的同位语,进一步补充说明,所以选A。B项see through the glass ceiling是对原文break through the glass ceiling的望文生义,属于肤浅选项,也和原文意思不符。C和D选项属于无中生有。

  39.【答案】D approval

  【解析】本题问的是作者对Reding的呼吁的态度。Reding的appeal最早出现在第二段,但是根据自然段界定原则,上一题是第四段,所以这道题只能从第五段开始。作者在第五段给出了自己的观点,先是说可以理解Reding,自己本身也不喜欢quotas,但是“既然现在meritocratic ideal(精英管理的理想)有障碍,确实需要一种强制的手段,即强制设定男女比例。”所以可以看出作者是持“赞成”的态度。

  40.【答案】C suitable public policies

  【解析】题干中的women entering top management become headlines是对第6段第二句话when women do break through to the summit of the corporate power的同义改写,become headlines是对后面for example所举的Sheryl Sandberg的事例的概括。答案出现在第7段开头。第7段是提出一种解决措施,“If appropriate pubic choices were in place to help all women, ...Sandberg would be no more newsworthy...”,这个句子是if虚拟条件句,是对未来的一种美好展望,也是提出观点的一种方式,意思是“如果有合理的公共政策来帮助所有的女性,Sandberg也就没有报道价值了”。所以正确答案是C,因为缺少“suitable public policies”。

 Part B

  Directions:

  You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45).Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1. (10 points)

  [A] Live like a peasant

  [B] Balance your diet

  [C] Shopkeepers are your friends

  [D] Remember to treat yourself

  [E] Stick to what you need

  [F] Planning is evervthing

  [G] Waste not, want not

  The hugely popular blog the Skint Foodie chronicles how Tony balances his love of good food with living on benefits. After bills, Tony has £60 a week to spend, £40 of which goes on food, but 10 years ago he was earning £130,000 a I year working in corporate communications and eating at London's betft restaurants'" at least twice a week. Then his marriage failed, his career burned out and his drinking became serious. "The community mental health team saved my life. And I felt like that again, to a certain degree, when people responded to the blog so well. It gave me the validation and confidence that I'd lost. But it's still a day-by-day thing." Now he's living in a council flat and fielding offers from literary agents. He's feeling positive, but he'll carry on blogging - not about eating as cheaply as you can - "there are so many people in a much worse state, with barely any money to spend on food" - but eating well on a budget. Here's his advice for economical foodies.

  41._____________________

  Impulsive spending isn't an option, so plan your week's menu in advance, making shopping lists for your ingredients in their exact quantities. I have an Excel template for a week of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Stop laughing: it's not just cost effective but helps you balance your diet. It's also a good idea to shop daily instead of weekly, because, being-human, you'll sometimes change your mind about what you fancy.

  42____________________________________________________________

  This is where supermarkets and thci; anonymity come in handy. With them, there's not the same embarrassment as when buying one carrot in a little greengrocer. And if you plan properly, you'll know that you only need, say, 350g

  of shin of beef and six rashers of bacon, not whatever weight is pre-packed in the supermarket chiller.

  43_________

  You may proudly claim to only have frozen peas in the freezer - that's not good enough. Mine is filled with leftovers, bread, stock, meat and fish. Planning ahead should eliminate wastage, but if you have surplus vegetables you'll do a vegetable soup, and all fruits threatening to "go off' will be cooked or juiced.

  44___________________________________

  Everyone says this, but it really is a top tip for frugal eaters. Shop at butchers, delis and fish-sellers regularly, even for small things, and be super friendly. Soon you'll feel comfortable asking if they've any knuckles of ham for soups and stews, or beef bones, chicken carcasses and fish heads for stock which, more often than not, Theyil let you have for free.

  45__________________

  You won't be eating out a lot, but save your pennies and once every few months treat yourself to a set lunch at a good restaurant - £1.75 a week for three months gives you £21 - more than" enough for a three-course lunch at

  Michelin-starred Arbutus. It's £16.95 there - or £12.99 for a large pizza from Domino's: I know which I'd rather eat.

【答案】

  41 F

  42 E

  43 G

  44 C

  45 D

  【答案详解】

  2013年新题型不出所料,考到了《大纲》里出现的,但过去三年里还没有考到过的小标题对应题。根据大纲要求,小标题对应题考查的是考生总结信息、理解信息的能力。其解题方法类似于阅读A 部分的主旨大意题,只是阅读A要求概括的是文章的主旨,而此种题型要求概括的是段落大意。那么,解题的时候,考生应该抓住的是段落的主旨,须关注主旨句常常出现的位置,即段落的首尾句,那么解题时必将事半功倍。

  41.[正确答案]: F

  [答案解析] 本段第一句后半句出现了结论性的词so,因此是做题时需关注的重点。这句话意为“因此要提前计划好你每周的食谱”。后面第二句第三句都用作者自己的例子来论证提前计划的好处,故能判断出第一句为本段主题句。选项F planning is everything, 计划最重要,能够概括本段大意,故为正确答案。

  42. [正确答案]: E

  [答案解析] 本段最后一句话“如果你安排合理,就能知道你需要的只是,比如350克牛胫骨和6片培根,而不是超市冷柜里里重量已定的预先包装好的东西”也就是说,提前计划好的话,可以按照自己预想的分量购买自己需要的食品。故只有E 选项 stick to what you need 符合本段的主题,为正确选项。

  43. [正确答案]: G

  [答案解析] 本段第一句说“你可能会很骄傲的宣称你冰箱里剩下的只有冷冻的豌豆了,这并不很好。”最后一句话说“如果你有多余的蔬菜,可以做个蔬菜汤, 快要坏掉的水果也可以做成菜或者榨成汁”。因此本段的主旨在于虽然计划很重要,但多余的东西也并不会被浪费掉,G 选项 waste not, want not 与本段的主旨一致,为正确答案。

  44. [正确答案]: C

  [答案解析] 本段首句说 “对节俭的人来说,这是最好的小建议”。随后提到去小卖店买东西的时候要特别友好,这样的话很快你就可以很自在的询问他们是否有一些零零碎碎的你需要的食材,而且很可能都是免费的。故C 选项Shopkeepers are your friends 符合本段主旨,为正确答案。

  45. [正确答案]: D

  [答案解析] 本段首句说“你不经常出去吃饭, 但每隔几个月要用的钱去个好的饭店好好吃顿午餐”。因此选项D Remember to treat yourself 是本题的正确答案。

 Section III Translation

  46. Directions: Translate the following text from English to Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET2. (15 points)

  I can pick a date from the past 53 years and know instantly where I was, what happened in the news and even the day of the week, I’ve been able to do this, since I was 4.

  I never feel overwhelmed with the amount of information my brain absorbs. My mind seems to be able to cope and the information is stored away neatly. When I think of a sad memory, I do what everybody does – try to put it to one side. I don't think it's harder for me just because my memory is clearer. Powerful memory doesn't make my emotions any more acute or vivid. I can recall the day my grandfather died and the sadness I felt when we went to the hospital the day before. I also remember that the musical Hair opened on Broadway on the same day – they both just pop into my mind in the same way.

  从过去的53年里随便找出一天,我都能够立刻想起那一天我在哪里,那一天发生了什么新闻,甚至那一天是星期几。从4岁起,我就能这么做了。

  我从来没有为自己所记住的大量的事情而感到不知所措。我似乎能够应对这种状况,能够有条理地将这些信息记在脑子里。当我想起悲伤的事情时,我会像每个人一样,尽力把它放在一边,不去想它。我并不认我因为我的记忆非常清晰,这么做对我来说就很难。强大的记忆力并不能使我的情感更加敏锐和生动。我能够记得我祖父去世的那一天,以及前一天我们去医院的路上所感到的悲伤。同样,我也能记得同一天在百老汇上演的音乐剧《Hair》——这些事情都以同样的方式在我脑海里突然浮现。

 Section IV Writing

  47 Writing

  Suppose your class is to hold a charity sale for kids in need of help. Write your classmates an email to

  1) inform them about the details and

  2) encourage them to participate 100 words use Li Ming. Don't write your address.(10 points)

  【范文及解析】

  Dear Classmates,

  I am writing to notify you of a charity sale our class will oganize. The detailed arrangements are as follows.

  This event will be held in the playground of our university on May 10, 2013, and it will start at 7 and end at 10 o’clock in the evening. At the opening ceremony, our Monitor will make clear that the purpose of the sale is to help children who have dropped out of shool because their family cannot afford their tuitioin.Then is the time for donating activity.

  Giving your love is a virtue, so I really appeal to all the students to take part in this event and I will be grateful if you come and give your donation.

  Sincerely yours,

  Li Ming

  2013年英语二小作文解析

  在2012年所有的面授及网课中,跨考老师均预测2013年英语(二)小作文80%的可能性是考察书信。不出所料,今年再次考察了从2010至2012年已经考察过三次的书信。但值得关注的是,今年考察了考研尚未考过的邀请和倡议的结合信,在冲刺与点睛班跨考杨凤芝老师一再提醒同学们,今年小作文应重点关注之前尚未考过的书信类型,其中就包括邀请信。该题如下:

  Directions: 一场慈善义卖将会举行以帮助那些需要帮助的儿童,要求告诉学生活动细节并希望所有学生都可以参加。所以,信中必须包括以下内容:说明此次慈善义卖的详细安排;期待同学们的参加。虽然考研历史上尚未考过邀请加倡议的书信,但此封信并不难写,2012年跨考老师讲授英语点睛班详细讲解了各类书信的写作步骤及注意事项,并提供了模版范文章与常用句子。而且跨考所出版的2013命题人书系《考前8天作文大预测》的第36页提供了邀请信的范文,该书73页还提供了万能模板及经典句型,几乎均可使用。跨考举行的模拟考试中也考过邀请信。考生如果认真准备过,到上考场前应该已经对邀请信进行过不下三次的练习。值得注意的是,今年的邀请信应结合题目要求,在写作中加入倡议学生积极参加献出爱心这一信息点。但是,这一点对考生来说应该不会构成障碍。

  需要注意的是,本题是公务信函,文中不应使用缩写、省略句或口语表达。称呼可使用“Dear Classmates,”,首段可直接点明目的(通知一个慈善义卖将要举行),次段需要给出该义卖的详细安排;尾段须表示期待学生能够积极参加。落款需要特别注意,过去三年英语二应用文的落款一直是“Zhang Wei”,但是今年小作文落款要求是“Li Ming”,所以一定不能写“Zhang Wei”。否则会被扣分或作为作弊卷。

  总体来看,今年英语二小作文难度不大,稍微偏简单。相信学生应该会取得不错的成绩。

 Part B (15 points)

  48 Write an essay based on the following chart in your writing, you should

  (1) interpret the chart, and

  (2) give your comments

  You should write about 150 words.

某高校学生兼职情况

The Change in College Students’ Thinking Patterns

  As is illustrated by the figure in the chart, the number of college students doing part-time jobs has been on rise steadily from 66.77% to 88.24 during the four university life. From the change in the chart, it goes without saying that more and more college students choose to engage in outside programs recently.

  Considering these changes, we can find several main reasons. Firstly, with grown-up of the students, most parents tend to support their children to going out to do some social practice. What is more important, the fast changing society has raised higher requirements for college graduates. The authorities of Chinese university or college have been encouraging their students to do part-time jobs in the hope that college students would broaden their view to know more about the society and become more adaptable to the future work after they graduate. Therefore, more students go out traveling or doing social practices during the vacations.

  As a college student, I think the chart reflects the exciting progress on the college students’ thinking patterns from freshman to senior. We have become much mature to realize how to spend our spare time meaningfully and practically. From the changes in the charts, it is easy for us to predict that more and more college students will walk out their home and throw themselves into more various vacation activities.

  2013年的图表作文,考察柱状图的写作。英语二试卷自2010年诞生,连续考察了2年柱状图,2012年考察了表格作文的写作,和我们预期的一样,今年不是延续考察表格就是柱状图。话题方面,2010年考察手机用户的数量增长,2011年考察汽车品牌的是市场份额,2012年考察公司员工满意度调查。 2013年的话题,由市场和职场领域,转向了校园生活。但是触及了学生从大一到大四对思维的转变,越来越多的学生注重社会实践。 同学们写作中注意:首先是一定要有结论:例:it goes without saying that more and more college students choose to engage in outside programs recently. 然后就是注意:文章的结构和句子应该多使用备考过程中准备好的,不要求新易出错。